I što o tome kaže Fukuyama u novoj knjizi Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy
Nemamo prijevod za riječ ‘accountability’. Evo jedne definicije:
Accountability = odgovornost ili dužnost državnih službenika da rade u najboljem interesu društva ili snose posljedice. Javni službenici moraju biti odgovorni za svoja djela.
Možda možemo probati s accountability = odgovornost + uračunljivost.
Zvuči jednostavno, ali je ključan sastojak koji nam nedostaje u hrvatskoj politici. Da sadašnja vlast nema accountability . Međutim, ništa bolje nije ni s opozicijom. Prije nekoliko dana je g. Karamarko izjavio da će voditi politiku u najboljem interesu svojih članova, birača i [nakon toga] društva u cjelini [ne mogu sad naći citati, molim čitaoce da ga doprinesug.
No, političko nezreli narod traži još toga. Pogledajmo još terminologije. Kod nas je potpuno uvriježeno da se kaže da je politička opcija NA VLASTI (pa deri, kume!). U većini razvijenih zemalja kaže se ‘uprava’ (eng. government). Za državnog službenika se kod nas ne razumije da riječ službenik dolazi od ‘služiti’ (narodu). Ova dva pojma zaista jesu tijesno vezana što možemo vidjeti i u ovom odličnom članku Are You Being Served? Political Accountability and Quality of Government.
Pogledajmo što o tome kaže Fukuyama u svojoj odličnoj novoj knjizi Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy, gdje je accountability jedna od ključnih tema.
1. Više puta spominje sljedeće.
Tri su ključna skupa političkih institucija:
– vladavina prava
– procedure koje promiču demokratski accountability
Od sada nadalje ću prenositi izvatke iz knjige u originalu, ne zato jer sam lijen prevesti, nego jer ne znam kako prevesti ‘accountability’:
2. “The last of the three sets of institutions to emerge was democratic accountability.”
3. “Accountability means that the government is responsive to the interests of the whole society — what Aristotle called the common good — rather than to just its own narrow self-interest. Accountability today is understood most typically as procedural accountability, that is, periodic free and fair multiparty elections that allow citizens to choose and discipline their rulers. … We need to bear in mind, however, that good procedures do not inevitably produce proper substantive results.”
4. “The old nineteenth-century problem of clientelism (what was known as the patronage system), in which individual voters received benefits in return for votes, was largely eliminated as a result of reforms undertaken during the Progressive Era. But it has been replaced today by a system of legalized gift exchange, in which politicians respond to organized interest groups that are collectively unrepresentative of the public as a whole.”
Ovdje Fukuyama kao primjer navodi klijentelizam u SAD, ali jasno je da je primjenjivo i u našem smislu, naime HDZ+SDP+HNS evidentno zadovoljavaju najprije svoje interesne grupe
5. Evo i jedne definicije: “In Controlling Corruption, Robert Klitgaard coined the formula Corruption = Discretion − Accountability.”
6. Pazite sada ovo što se tiče stvarnog autoriteta naših ‘vlasti’:
“Democratic accountability is critical to the proper functioning of political systems because it is ultimately the basis for authority, that is, the legitimate exercise of power. Compliance with the state’s wishes can be achieved coercively, and there have of course been many examples of this in history. But governments work much better when power is converted into authority, when citizens comply with laws and policies voluntarily because they believe in the system’s basic legitimacy.”
7. “Formal procedures like regular free and fair elections were designed to achieve democratic accountability. But elections by themselves do not guarantee a substantive outcome of government truly responsive to popular wishes. Elections and electorates can be manipulated; entrenched parties may offer inadequate choices to voters; participation may be low. There is a large information problem: my casting a vote every few years may signal my general approval or disapproval of the policies of a party or administration, but what I am really concerned about is a particular regulation affecting my business, or the fact that my child doesn’t have good teachers in her public school. There is theoretically a route of accountability that stretches from voter to government and back down to the citizen via a bureaucracy. But that route is extremely long, and in the process of communicating choices, the signal is often lost in a lot of noise.”
8. Evo malo i o brutalnom oporezivanju i povjerenju (ključan sastojak koji nedostaje našem društvu!):
“The solution to the problem of improving democratic accountability therefore does not necessarily lie in the proliferation of formal accountability mechanisms or in absolute government transparency. The Confucians were right in arguing that no set of rules can ever be adequate to produce good results in all cases. There is an intangible factor that needs to be present to make the political system work, which is trust. Citizens must trust the government to make good decisions reflecting their interests most of the time, while governments for their part must earn that trust by being responsive and delivering on their promises. A properly autonomous bureaucracy is not one that is walled off from citizens, but rather one that Peter Evans describes as “embedded” in society and responsive to its demands. This constitutes a high-level equilibrium in which trust in government begets effective government, which in turn increases trust on all sides. The opposite, low-level equilibrium, is one in which low-quality government breeds distrust on the part of citizens, who then withhold from the state both the compliance and resources necessary for government to function effectively. Lacking proper authority, such governments turn to coercion to achieve compliance.”
Ovo su bili samo neki citati iz ove odlične knjige izdane prije 8 dana. Piketty je lanjski snijeg, čitajte Fukuyamu! Jedan prikaz knjige je u The Economistu: Francis Fukuyama — The end of harmony.