Molim ispunite anketu na kraju
Motivirala me rasprava na mom FB zidu na mali članak o demagozima.
1. Što je u stvari demagog? Promislimo malo. Riječ se pojavila u staroj Grčkoj, najpoznatije u Aristofanovim Vitezovima. S goodreads:
“You [demagogues] are like the fishers for eels; in still waters they catch nothing, but if they thoroughly stir up the slime, their fishing is good; in the same way it’s only in troublous times that you line your pockets.”
I kaže još:
“[Y]ou possess all the attributes of a demagogue; a screeching, horrible voice, a perverse, crossgrained nature and the language of the market-place. In you all is united which is needful for governing.”
Wikipedija ima lijep članak o demagozima u kojem kaže, primjerice:
A demagogue /ˈdɛməɡɒɡ/ (from French “demagogue”, derived in turn from the Greek “demos” = people/folk and the verb “ago” = carry/manipulate thus “people’s manipulator”) or rabble-rouser is a political leader in a democracy who appeals to the emotions, fears, prejudices, and ignorance of the lower socioeconomic classes in order to gain power and promote political motives. Demagogues usually oppose deliberation and advocate immediate, violent action to address a national crisis; they accuse moderate and thoughtful opponents of weakness. Demagogues have appeared in democracies since ancient Athens. They exploit a fundamental weakness in democracy: because ultimate power is held by the people, nothing stops the people from giving that power to someone who appeals to the lowest common denominator of a large segment of the population.
Demagogues appealed directly to the emotions of the poor and uninformed, pursuing power, telling lies to stir up hysteria, exploiting crises to intensify popular support for their calls to immediate action and increased authority, and accusing moderate opponents of weakness or disloyalty to the nation. While all politicians in a democracy must make occasional small sacrifices of truth, subtlety, or long-term concerns to maintain popular support, demagogues do these things relentlessly and without self-restraint.
Trenutno najpoznatiji i razumnom čovjeku najnevjerojatniji primjer demagoga je tatin sinek, buržuj, bivši ljevičar, ponosni vlasnik BMW motocikla Cipras – sjetite se primjerice kako je histerično nagovarao raju da na referendumu glasa ‘protiv’ uvjeta EU, a onda potpisao još strože uvjete. I nakon svega izjavljuje: “Cipras podnio ostavku: “Osjećam moralnu i političku odgovornost, vaš glas će odlučiti.” Zaista za ne povjerovati?!
Iz gornjega bi slijedilo da su demagozi među najgorim zločincima, koji su na naročito pohlepan i beskruulozan način skloni izmanipulirati druge i nanijeti im veliku štetu.
2. Međutim, postoji i drugo viđenje. Primjerice, u WHO IS TO BLAME? POLITICAL LEADERS AND DEMOS IN ARISTOPHANES’ KNIGHTS By: NATALIA TSOUMPRA imamo:
Scholarship on Aristophanes’ Knights has largely focused on the political invective of Aristophanes against Cleon; in fact the play has been often perceived as an attack on Cleon and his policy of demagoguery.
My view of the play is essentially different. In my paper I want to stress the criticism which Aristophanes aims mostly against the people and not exclusively against Cleon, thereby suggesting that it is the people who are shown to have the biggest share of the responsibility for the political situation in Athens. On these grounds, I set out to argue that Demos displays consistent behaviour throughout the play, which reveals his dependence on his political protectors and his failure to free himself from them in the end. Then, I move on to show that Agorakritos is not a saviour, but just another demagogue, a successor to Cleon (the Paphlagonian slave in the play), who like Cleon before him gains control over Demos in the end. Thus, the message of the ending is essentially pessimistic: people like Cleon still hold and will always hold sway over the people. The circle of manipulation cannot be broken, because of Demos’ behaviour towards his leaders.
Lik Demosa utjelovljuje narod.
Demos Powerful but Easy to Fool
2.1 To begin with, many passages in the play suggest that it is the dēmos that has the power over the politicians. First of all, Demos is presented as the master of the house, νῷν γάρ ἐστι δεσπότης (40), even if a “peevish, hard of hearing old man” (42–43). …
2.2 So, insofar as the two leaders-to-be understand that their status is determined by Demos’ decisions and act according to his caprices, they acknowledge his power. However, as the chorus remarks (1110ff.), there is an inconsistency in the character of Demos: powerful as he may be, he is easily led astray. This gullibility and stupidity of Demos goes alongside the acknowledgement of his power in the play.
2.3 Our first impression about Demos is formed on the basis of the slaves’ comments about him. They describe him as a credulous man, susceptible to flattery and toadying, who is easily tricked by Paphlagon (46–47).
Međutim, vrlo zanimljivo:
However, just in the middle of the contest Demos surprisingly shows us a completely different face from the one just described. In his reply to the chorus’s accusations, which have been mentioned above, he states that he is pretending to be an imbecile, while he has known all along what is happening (1123–1124). He keeps watch on the politicians at all times and, when they are “full up,” he strikes them down (1125–1130). Thus, while they think they deceive him, he is the one who deceives them (1141–1150).
Kako Vitezovi imaju negativnu konačnu poruku, ne možemo ovo smatrati kao izrazom neke velike mudrosti naroda, nego pragmatizmom.
O tome govori i Dragutin na mom FB zidu:
Grčki narod je svjestan da traži kruha bez motike pa im za ostvarenje cilja upravo trebaju muljatori kao što je Cipras. Grci ne žele vraćati dugove, ali ne žele ni napustiti euro, oni žele i novce i ovce. Upravo kao i njihov drug Cipras, on je njima idealan predstavnik. Znaju Grci da je Cipras muljator, a njima takav “koristan idiot” upravo i treba kako bi i dalje mogli parazitirati na eu pomoći zato se ne bi čudio ako ponovo dobije vlast. Zapravo bih se začudio kad bi sada prevladali oni kojima nije stalo do eura.
U ovom trenutku se treba sjetiti kako su Grci u vrijeme jeftinog novca i sumanutog zaduživanja grčke države na međunarodnim tržišima dovukli stotinjak MILIJARDI eura dodatne štednje u svoje banke (država ga je distribuirala direktno, kao i indirektno, kroz masovno neplaćanje poreza), pa im je tako štednja samo u grčkim bankama 2010. porasla na oko 200 milijardi eura (plus ono, a nije malo, što su parkirali u stranim bankama), od čega su opet zadnjih nekoliko godina stotinjak povukli u madrace. Naši pak demagozi su nam redovito plasirali tezu o ‘jadnim, siromašnim Grcima, žrtvama neoliberalnog’ (ilustrirajući to primjerima nekih kojima zaista jest teško).
Slično, u Hrvatskoj već 25 godina imamo praktički uzornu demokraciju, narod ima točno ono što želi.
3. Pitanje je stoga: Jesu li demagozi zlikovci koje bi trebalo puno strože javno osuđivati (u Hrvatskoj je to postala vrlo blaga osuda, nitko se previše ne zabrine kad ga se nazove demagogom).
Što mislite o tome: